
Optical metrology and sensing (4 credits)
Content
 Basic principles
 Wave optical fundamentals
 Sensors
 Two and multibeam interferometry
 Wave front analysis
 Methods of phase measurement
 Whitelight interferometry
 Phase conjugation and retrieval
 Holography and holographic interferometry
 Fringe projection
 Triangulation
 Speckle methods and OCT
 Metrology of aspheres and freeform surfaces
 Confocal methods

Introduction to optical modeling (4 credits)
Recommended Reading
 H. Gross, Handbook of Optical Systems, Vol.1: Fundamentals of Technical Optics, WileyVCH.
 L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics, Cambridge university press.
 L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of NanoOptics, Cambridge university press.

Fundamentals of modern optics (8 credits)
Content
 Basic concepts of wave optics
 Dielectric function to describe lightmatter interaction
 Propagation of beams and pulses
 Diffraction theory
 Elements of Fourier optics
 Polarization of light
 Light in structured media
 Optics in crystals
Intended Learning Outcomes
The course covers the fundamentals of modern optics which are necessary for the understanding of optical phenomena in modern science and technology. The students will acquire a thorough knowledge of the most important concepts of modern optics. At the same time, the importance and beauty of optics in nature and in technology will be taught. This will enable students to follow more specialized courses in photonics.
Recommended Reading
 B.E.A. Saleh and M.C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, Wiley.
 H. Lipson, D.S. Tannhauser, S.G. Lipson, ”Optical Physics”, Cambridge.
 E. Hecht and A. Zajac, ”Optics”, AddisonWesley Longman.
 F.L. Pedrotti, L.S. Pedrotti, L.M. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics, Pearson.
 G. Brooker, Modern Classical Optics, Oxford.

Structure of matter (8 credits)
Content
 Classical interaction of light with matter
 Basic knowledge on quantum mechanics
 Einstein coefficients and Plancks formula
 Selection rules
 Hydrogen atom and helium atom
 Introduction to molecular spectroscopy
 Dielectric function and linear optical constants
 KramersKronigRelations
 Linear optical properties of crystalline and amorphous solids
 Basic nonlinear optical effects
Recommended Reading
 Demtröder, Experimental physics II, Springer.
 Demtröder, Experimental physics III – atoms, molecules and solids, Springer.
 R. Feynman, Feynman lectures on physics III quantum mechanics, Basic books.
 Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Wiley.
 E. Hecht, Optics, Pearson.

Advanced quantum theory (8 credits)
This course is only available to students who have already sufficiently covered either of the two courses above or equivalent during their previous studies. If you are an admitted or enrolled student at ASP, please discuss this option with your study coordinator before the start of the lecture period of the first semester (mid October).

Experimental optics (6 credits)
Content
 Refraction
 Optical lenses
 Interferometry
 Laser fundamentals
 Spectroscopy
 Optical tweezers
 Adaptive optics
Intended Learning Outcomes
Introduction to experimental techniques in optics; planning and preparation of a scientific measuring task; carrying out scientific labwork in optics together with a research team; preparation of a scientific report.

Laser physics (8 credits)
Content
 Introduction to laser physics (stimulated emission, atomic rate equations, laser pumping and population inversion)
 Optical beams and laser resonators
 Laser dynamics
 Qswitching
 Mode locking
 Wavelength tuning and single frequency operation
 Laser systems
 Selected industrial and scientific applications
Intended Learning Outcomes
This course provides an introduction to the basic ideas of laser physics. The first part presents the fundamental equations and concepts of laser theory, while the second part is devoted to a detailed discussion of selected laser applications. The students are introduced to the different types of lasers including classical gas or ruby lasers as well as modern highpower diode pumped solidstate concepts and their applications.

Acceleratorbased modern physics (Stöhlker)
Content
 Basic concepts of particle accelerators
 Application of accelerators in basic science and medicine
 Landmark experiments
Intended Learning Outcomes
Gaining an overview of the various applications of particle accelerators, in particular for basic science; ability to solve exercise; prepare a presentation.

Analytical instrumentations (Szeghalmi/Tünnermann)
Content
 Atomic and molecular structure
 Basics of atomic spectroscopy techniques
 Molecular spectroscopy: absorption, emission, spectroscopy, microspectroscopy, and basics of magnetic resonance spectroscopy
 Hardware of spectrometers/microscopes: light sources, detectors, optics, and material point of view
 Current applications and relevance in material and life sciences
Intended learning outcomes
In this course, students will learn about analytical methods to investigate structure and composition of matter. Basic principles of atomic and molecular structure will be refreshed towards better understanding of experimental analysis techniques such as spectrophotometry, ellipsometry, fluorescence, infrared, Raman, spectroscopy and microscopy. The course will focus on technologicalaspects of the experimental setup in analytical instrumentations and modern applications of analytical instrumentations in material and life sciences will be discussed.

Atomic physics at high field strenghts (Stöhlker)
Content
 Strong field effects on the atomic structure
 Relativistic and QED effects on the structure of heavy ions
 Xray spectroscopy of highZ ions
 Application in xray astronomy
 Penetration of charged particles through matter
 Particle dynamics in of atoms and ions in strong laser fields
 Relativistic ionatom and ionelectron collisions
 Fundamental interaction processes
 Scattering, absorption and energy loss
 Detection methods
 Particle creation
Intended learning outcomes
The Module provides insight into the basic techniques and concepts in physics related to extreme electromagnetic fields. Their relevance to nowadays applications will be discussed in addition. The Module also introduces the basic interaction processes of highenergy photon and particle beams with matter, including recent developments of high intensity radiation sources, such as free electron lasers and modern particle accelerators. Experimental methods and the related theoretical description will be reviewed in great detail.

Attosecond laser physics (Pfeiffer)
Content
 Coherent electron dynamics in atoms and molecules
 Strong field effects and ionization
 High harmonic generation and phase matching
 Techniques for attosecond pulse generation
 Transient absorption
 Attosecond quantum optics with fewlevel quantum models
Intended learning outcomes
The course gives an introduction into the young research field of attosecond physics. Electron dynamics in atoms and molecules on the attosecond time scale (which is the natural timescale for bound electrons) will be discussed, along with modern techniques for attosecond pulse generation and characterization.

Applied laser technology I (Eggeling/Cizmar)
Content
 Overview over laser beam applications as a contactless and remote
probe (macroscopic and microscopic, cw and ultrafast, dealing with
spectroscopy, metrology, sensing, and multidimensional microscopy)  Fundamental concepts of related physical and physicochemical
effects  Absorption and emission of light (selection rules)
 Ultrafast coherent excitation and relaxation (linear and nonlinear
optical processes)  Light reflection and elastic/inelastic scattering
Intended Learning Outcomes
The course covers the fundamentals and concepts of the selected laser applications and helps learning to develop own solutions for challenges in laser applications.
 Overview over laser beam applications as a contactless and remote

Biomedical imaging  nonionizing radiation (Reichenbach)
Content
Since the discovery of Xrays by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1895, imaging has become an invaluable part of science and medicine. Today, it has become an indispensable key technology in modern (bio)medicine. In addition to the use of ionizing radiation, there are alternative imaging systems that use nonionizing (electro)magnetic fields or mechanical waves. These include magnetic resonance imaging, which is based on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance, and ultrasound imaging. The objective of this course is to introduce the physical principles, basic characteristics and technical concepts of these imaging systems. Recent developments and applications will be presented and serve to deepen the understanding of this area of imaging science. The course is intended for master students in medical photonics, and photonics, physics, materials science, and medical or other students with strong interest in these biomedical imaging techniques.
The following topics will be covered:
 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) basics
 Fundamentals of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
 MRI sequences and imaging applications
 Fundamentals of ultrasound
 Ultrasound imaging and applications
 Optical coherence tomography (possibly)
Intended Learning Outcomes
To gain a critical understanding of the fundamentals and technology underlying these nonionizing imaging systems, including instrumentation and various applications. In addition to lectures, the course includes other elements, such as short online quizzes, homework assignments, and programming assignments to solve problems by implementing algorithms in Matlab or Python, which are related to the methods described in the course. This course is independent of Biomedical imaging  ionizing radiation and does not require prior attendance of that course.
Recommed Reading
 J.T. Bushberg, J.A. Seiberg, E.M. Leidholdt, Jr., J.M. Boone, Essential Physics of Medical Imaging, Wolters Kluwer Health.
 A. Oppelt, Imaging Systems for Medical Diagnostics: Fundamentals, Technical Solutions and Applications for Systems Applying Ionizing Radiation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound, Publicis.
 P. Suetens, Fundamentals of Medical Imaging, Cambridge University Press.
 W.R. Hendee, E.R. Ritenour, Medical Imaging Physics, WileyLiss.
 J. Keeler, Understanding NMR Spectroscopy, Wiley.
 R.W. Brown, Y.C.N. Cheng, E.M. Haacke, M.R. Thompson, R. Venkatesan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, WileyBlackwell.

Biophotonics (Heintzmann/Ehricht)
Content
The Module provides a deep introduction into the multitude of possible linear and nonlinear light biological matter interaction phenomena and thus in modern techniques and applications of frequency, spatially, and timeresolved biospectroscopy. The course presents a comprehensive overview over modern spectroscopic and optical imaging techniques including specific theoretical methodologies to analyze the experimental spectroscopic data and resolve problems in life sciences. The biological part introduces molecular and cellular properties of living organisms, explaining the basic structures and functions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, as well as the most important biochemical substance classes and biochemical pathways where they are involved. Furthermore, basics in microbiology, especially in antimicrobial resistant bacteria, will be provided and combined with the introduction of diagnostic principles and selected infectious diseases.
Examples for molecular and serological assay and test development, basic methods for diagnostics, and epidemiology will be discussed. This sets the stage for biophotonic applications by showing several examples of how biophotonics can help to shed light on biologically and clinically relevant processes. The Module spans aspects of the scientific disciplines chemistry, physics, biology and medicine. The Exercises will be partly calculating examples and partly in the form a seminar talks of the students presenting current research publications. Intended learning outcomes.
Considering the differing learing environments and strategies, this lecture and seminar are offered in hybrid form. The initial 7 (out of 11) lectures are held in presence + live streaming (via zoom). The last four (about advanced and superresolution microscopy) will be discussed in presence + live stream. Video records of all lectures will be made available via moodle.
Intended Learning Outcomes
The aim of this course is to present modern methods in spectroscopy, microscopy and imaging dedicated to biological samples. After the course the students will be able to choose and to apply appropriate spectroscopic methods and imaging technology to resolve special biophotonic problems.
Recommended Reading
 Paras N. Prasad, Introduction to Biophotonics, Wiley.
 Textbooks on laser spectroscopy, e.g. Demtröder; on quantum mechanics, e.g. Atkins and on optics, e.g. Zinth/Zinth.
 Jerome Mertz, Introduction to Optical Microscopy, Roberts & Company Publishers.
 Selected chapters of Handbook of Biophotonics, Wiley.
 M. Baker, C. Hughes, K. A. Hollywood, Biophotonics: Vibrational Spectroscopic Diagnostics; IOP Publishing.

Computational photonics (Pertsch)
Content
 Introduction to the problem – Maxwell’s equations and the wave equation
 Free space propagation techniques
 Beam propagation methods applied to problems in integrated optics
 Mode expansion techniques applied to stratified media
 Mode expansion techniques applied to spherical and cylindrical objects
 Multiple multipole technique
 Boundary integral method
 FiniteDifference TimeDomain method
 Finite Element Method
 Computation of the dispersion relation (band structure) of periodic media
 Mode expansion techniques applied to gratings
 Other grating techniques
 Contemporary problems in computational photonics
Intended Learning Outcomes
The course aims at an introduction to various techniques used for computer based optical simulation. Therefore, the student should learn how to solve Maxwell’s equations in homogenous and inhomogeneous media rigorously as well as on different levels of approximation. The course concentrates predominantly on teaching numerical techniques that are useful in the field of micro and nanooptics.
Watch this video for more informationExternal link 
Electronic structure theory (Rödl)
Content
 Introduction to the manybody problem
 Wavefunctionbased approaches for electronic structure
 Density functional theory
 Electronic excitations: beyond density functional theory
Intended learning outcomes
Electronic structure theory is a successful and evergrowing field, shared by theoretical physics and theoretical chemistry, that takes advantage from the increasing availability of highperformance computers. Starting only from the knowledge of the types of atoms that constitute a material (molecule, solid, nanostructure..) we will learn how to determine without further experimental input, i.e. using only the laws of quantum physics, its structural and electronic properties. The lecture will initiate the students to the stateoftheart theoretical and computational approaches used for electronic structure calculations.
In the practical classes the students will learn through tutorials to use different software for electronic structure simulations. During the last month they will realize a small independent scientific project. 
Fiber optics (M. Schmidt)
Content
 Mode formation in optical fibers (analytic model and numerics)
 Pulse propagation in optical fibers
 Materials and light matterinteraction
 Implementation of optical fibers
 Special fiber types (photonic crystal fibers, hollow fibers, polarization
maintaining fibers)
Intended learning outcomes
The aim of this module (lecture + tutorial) is to provide a comprehensive overview of waveguides with special emphasis on optical fibers. The course starts with a detailed introduction to the main parameters and physical principles, such as optical modes, dispersion and pulse propagation. The lecture then focuses on relevant materials (e.g., fused silica) and continues with a discussion of lightmatter interaction in the context of optical fibers. The final part of the lecture will focus on different types of optical fibers, including graded index fibers, multimode fibers, and microstructured fibers. We will also discuss challenging concepts such as light guidance in hollow core fibers. This lecture will provide students with a solid knowledge base related to fiber optics, which is essential for anyone using fibers and waveguides in science and industry.
Requirements
Basic knowledge about electrodynamics.
Recommended reading
 A. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory.
 G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology.
 C. Yeh, The Essence of Dielectric Waveguides.
Information on the lecturer

Fundamental atomic and nuclear processes in highly ionized matter (Stöhlker)
Content
Lecture 1: "Xray spectroscopy of hot plasmas"
 basic properties of atomic systems (level structure, transition rates,
etc.)  atomic chargeexchange processes in plasmas, charge state
distributions  creation of plasmas: facilities for stored and trapped ions
 xray detectors and techniques for spectroscopy and polarimetry
 xray diagnosis of plasmas in the laboratory and nature
Lecture 2: "Nuclear matter and the formation of elements"
 Properties of nuclear matter
 Stability of the atomic nucleus
 Nuclear models and masses of atomic nuclei
 Nuclear processes related to the creation of the elements
 Nuclear radiation and radiation detectors
 Experimental techniques
Intended Learning Outcomes
Gaining an overview of experiments addressing astrophysical topics, in particular concerning ionized matter.
 basic properties of atomic systems (level structure, transition rates,

History of optics (Mappes)
Content
The seminar covers the history of optics from the antiquity to the 20th century: Starting with Greek heories of vision and ending with quantum optics. A strong focus will be given on the development of concepts and experiments that influenced todays thinking about light and optics, such as wave particle dualism or the Abbe diffraction limit. An excursion the Jena’s Optical Museum is part of the seminar.
Intended Learning Outcomes
In close collaboration with the supervisor, the student will work on an independent project. The students will develop the ability to evaluate critically the arguments and analytical methods of historians. They will learn developing their own interpretations based on critical assessments of primary source evidence and independent research.

Image processing (Denzler)
Content
 Digital image fundamentals (Image Sensing and Acquisition, Image Sampling and Quantization)
 Image Enhancement in the Spatial Domain (Basic Gray Level Transformations, Histogram Processing, Spatial Filtering)
 Image Enhancement in the Frequency Domain (Introduction to the FourierTransform and the Frequency Domain, Frequency Domain Filtering, Homomorphic Filtering)
 Image Restoration (Noise Models, Inverse Filtering, Geometric Distortion)
 Color Image Processing Image Segmentation (Detection of Discontinuities, Edge Linking and Boundary Detection, Thresholding, RegionBased Segmentation)
 Representation and Description Applications
Intended Learning Outcomes
The course covers the fundamentals of digital image processing. Based on this the students should be able to identify standard problems in image processing to develop individual solutions for given problems and to implement image processing algorithms for use in the experimental fields of modern optics.

Innovation methods in photonics (Pertsch/Kretzschmar/Zakoth)

Integrated Optics (Setzpfandt)
Content
 Waveguide modes
 Theory of optical waveguides
 Losses in optical waveguides
 Coupling between waveguides
 Waveguide input and output couplers
 Waveguidebased devices
 Waveguide fabrication techniques
Intended learning outcomes
The course will give a basic introduction into physics and theoretical description of integrated optical waveguides. This will include the modal description of light propagation in individual waveguides and the description of coupling between waveguide. Also, the course will introduce basic functional elements used in integrated optics, e.g. phase modulators and integrated interferometers. After active participation in the course, students will be able to understand and describe light propagation in integrated optical circuits and will have a strong foundation for studying more advanced concepts in integrated optics.
Recommended reading
 R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics – Theory and Technology, Springer.
 T. Tamir, Integrated Optics, Springer.
 A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory.

Introduction to nanooptics (Pertsch/Staude)
Content
 Surfaceplasmonpolaritons
 Plasmonics
 Photonic crystals
 Fabrication and optical characterization of nanostructures
 Photonic nanomaterials / metamaterials / metasurfaces
 Optical nanoemitters
 Optical nanoantennas
Intended learning outcomes
The course provides an introduction to the broad research field of nanooptics. Students will learn about different concepts which are applied to control the emission, propagation, and absorption of light at subwavelength spatial dimensions. Furthermore, they will learn how nanostructures can be used to optically interact selectively with nanoscale matter, a capability not achievable with standard diffraction limited microscopy. After successful completion of the course the students should be capable of understanding present problems of the research field and should be able to solve basic problems using advanced literature.

Introduction to xray spectroscopy (Röhlsberger)
Content
The module ‘Introduction to Xray spectroscopy’ features, amongst others, the following major subjects:
 Introduction to the interaction of xrays and matter: From electrons and atoms to nanostructures and complex materials,
 Introduction to advanced spectroscopy techniques at synchrotron radiation sources and xray lasers,
 Spectrometers for highest spectral resolution to study electronic structure and dynamics in condensed matter,
 Resonant spectroscopies to study the unique properties of magnetic nanostructures,
 Inelastic Xray spectroscopy to probe vibrational and magnetic excitations like phonons and magnons in functional materials.

Laser driven radiation sources (Zepf)
Content
 Laser Plasma Interactions
 Principles of Plasma Accelerators
 Ultrafast Photon Sources
 Scattering of photons from particle beams
Intended Learning Outcomes
The course introduces the basic interaction processes of highenergy lasers with plasmas and particle beams with a particular emphasis on the extremely intense sources of proton, electron and photons with pulse durations in the femtosecond regime.

Laser fusion (Zepf)
Content
This is a new lecture in response to the recent breakthrough in fusion science. It adresses the physics and challenges of fusion energy generation and focuses on the specifics of laserdriven fusion.

Lens Design I (Tang/Zhang from ZEISS)
Content
 Introduction and user interface
 Description and properties of optical systems
 Geometrical and wave optical aberrations
 Optimization
 Imaging simulation
 Introduction into illumination systems
 Correction of simple systems
 More advanced handling and correction methods
Intended Learning Outcomes
This course gives an introduction in layout, performance analysis and optimization of optical systems with the software Zemax.

Micro/Nanotechnology (Siefke/Tünnermann)
Content
Micro and nanooptical structures enable mankind to tailor basically all properties of light. In this course you will learn how to fabricate the required structures to shape light at your will.
This course is an introduction equally useful for theorists who want to incorporate realworld limitations into their designs and for practitioners who want to fabricate such structures themselves. The applicationoriented course is focusing on the required techniques and facilities needed to fabricate micro and nanooptics. This includes a comprehensive overview of the physical principles behind various lithography techniques, thin film coating and etching technology as well as insights into practicalities of working in clean room environments.
Intended Learning Outcomes
By the end of this course, you will understand:
 Specific requirements that micro and nanooptics impose on fabrication technology
 Typical structure geometries and designs used in micro and nanooptics
 Different types of coating technology
 The physical principles of lithography, the key process in creating microstructures
 Essential techniques of dry and wet etching processes used in pattern transfer
 Realworld applications and examples that demonstrate the possibilities of micro and nanooptics.
The course Micro Nano Technology offers more than knowledge  it equips you with the tools and skills to shape tomorrow's world. If you're ready to innovate and leave your mark, however microscopic, this course is your stepping stone. Let's build the future, one nanolayer at a time.

Microscopy (Eggeling/Reina/Heintzmann)
Content
 Optical microscopy
 Circumventing the resolution limit
 Electron microscopy
 Atomic force microscopy
Intended Learning Outcomes
This module provides an introduction into the fundamentals of modern light and electron microscopy.

Modern methods of spectroscopy (Spielmann)
Content
 Fundamentals of lightmatter interaction
 Experimental tools of spectroscopy
 Laser spectroscopy
 Timeresolved spectroscopy
 Laser cooling
 THz and Xray spectroscopy
 Photoelectron spectroscopy
 Applications of laser spectroscopy in physics, chemistry, medicine
Intended Learning Outcomes
Understanding the methods of spectroscopy based on new developments in optics; impart knowledge about the design of a spectroscopic experiment; ability to independently solve spectroscopic questions.

Nano Engineering (Hoeppener/Schubert)
Content
 Building with Molecules
 Selforganization and selfassembled coatings
 Chemically sensitive characterization methods
 Nanomaterials for optical applications
 Nanowires and nanoparticles
 Nanomaterials in optoelectronics
 Bottomup synthesis strategies and nanolithography
 Polymers and selfhealing coatings
 Molecular motors
 Controlled polymerization techniques
Intended Learning Outcomes
A large diversity of nanomaterials can be efficiently produced by utilizing chemical synthesis strategies. The wide range of nanomaterials, i.e., nanoparticles, nanotubes, micelles, vesicles, nanostructured phase separated surface layers etc. opens on the one hand versatile possibilities to build functional systems, on the other hand also the large variety of techniques and processes to fabricate such systems is also difficult to overlook.
Traditionally the communication in the interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology is difficult, as expertise from different research areas is combined. This course aims on the creation of a common basic level for communication and knowledge of researchers of different research fields and to highlight interdisciplinary approaches which lead to new fabrication strategies. The course includes basic chemical synthesis strategies, molecular selfassembly processes, chemical surface structuring, nanofabrication and surface chemistry to create a pool of knowledge to be able to use molecular building blocks in future research projects.
Recommended Reading
 G. Cao, Nanostructures & Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties & Applications, Imperial College Press, 2004
 G.A. Ozin, A.C. Arsenault, L. Cademartiri, A Chemical Approach to Nanomaterials, Royal Soc. Of Chemistry, 2nd Ed., 2009
 L.F. Chi, Nanotechnology Vol. 8 Nanostructured Surfaces, WileyVCH, 2010

Nonlinear optical properties of 2D materials (Soavi)
Content
 Introduction to nonlinear optics and 2D materials
 Nonlinear optics for the characterization of crystal symmetries
 Examples of nonlinear optics in graphene
 Momentum conservation in nonlinear optics
 Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of excitons
 Nonlinear optics in layered magnets
Intended Learning Outcomes
Understanding the basic principles of nonlinear optics and how they can be applied to the study of atomically thin materials. Ability to read, understand and present in a clear way the most recent trends and published results in the field of nolinear optics with atomically thin materials.

Optics for spectroscopists: Optical waves in solids (Mayerhöfer)
Content
 Limitations and nonlinearities of the (Bouguer)BeerLambert law from waveoptics and dispersion theory based perspective.
 Reflection and Refraction at isotropic and anisotropic interfaces (Yeh's formalism, Berreman formalism, etc.)
 Dispersion relations (Classical damped harmonic oscillator, Lorentzprofile, coupled oscillator model, semiempirical 4parameter model, inverse dielecrtic function modelling, KramersKronig relations etc.)
 Quantitative analysis of spectra with dispersion analysis and KramersKronig analysis
Intended Learning Outcomes
The students will acquire an understanding about how preMaxwell spectroscopic concepts and quantities like the BeerLambert law and absorbance are related to their waveoptics based analogues. The final goal is to be able to quantitatively understand and analyze spectra based on dispersion theory and wave optics and to bridge the gap between spectroscopy and optics.
Recommended Reading
 Born & Wolf, Introduction to optics, Pergamon Press.
 Pocci Yeh, Optical Waves in layered Media, John Wiley & Sons Inc.
 Thomas Mayerhöfer, Wave Optics in Infrared Spectroscopy, Elsevier 2024.

Optical system design fundamentals (Blahnik)
Content
 Basic technical optics
 Paraxial optics
 Imaging systems
 Aberrations
 Performance evaluation of optical systems
 Correction of optical systems
 Optical system classification
 Special system considerations
Intended Learning Outcomes
This course covers the fundamental principles of classical optical system design, the performance assessment and the correction of aberrations. In combination of geometrical optics and physical theory the students will learn the basics to understand optical systems, which can be important for experimental work.

Particles in strong electromagnetic fields (Zepf/Rykovanov)
Content
 Electrons in constant fields
 Electrons in electromagnetic pulses
 Radiation produced by particles in extreme motion
 Radiation reaction
 QED effects in strong laser fields
Intended Learning Outcomes
This course is devoted to the dynamics of charged particles in electromagnetic fields. Starting with motion of electrons in constant magnetic and electric fields, the course continues with the electron motion in electromagnetic pulses (i.e. laser pulses) of high strength (i.e. when laser pressure becomes dominant). Radiation produced by electrons in extreme motion will be calculated for several most important cases: synchrotron radiation, Thomson scattering, undulator radiation. Effects of radiation reaction on electron motion will be discussed. The last part of the course will briefly discuss the QED effects in strong laser fields: stochasticity in radiation reaction, pair production by focused laser pulses and QED cascades. Analytical framework will be complemented with the help of numerical calculations.

Photovoltaics (Paulus)
Content
 Pertinent elements of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics (diffusion, Boltzmann factor, free energy)
 Fundamental concepts of solid state physics
 Semiconductors and pnjunction
 Diode equation
 ShockleyQueisser limit
 Design criteria for solar cells
Intended Learning Outcomes
 Profound understanding of the physics underlying the performance of solar cells
 Development of an understanding of the role of photovoltaics for covering the energy demand of modern societies.
 Capability to solve complex problems pertinent to solar cells

Physical optics (Franke)
Content
 Wave optics, light propagation
 Diffraction, slit, PSF, aberrations
 Coherence, temporal and spatial, OCT, speckle
 Laser, resonators, laser beams, pulses
 Gaussian beams, propagation, generalizations, Schell beams
 Fourier optics, resolution, image formation, OTF, criteria
 Quality criteria of imaging
 PSF engineering, superresolution, extended depth of focus
 Confocal methods, laser scanning, metrology
 Polarization, fundamentals, Jones vectors, birefringence
 Photon optics, uncertainty, statistics
 Scattering, surfaces, volume models, tissue optics
 Miscellaneous, coatings, nonlinear optics, short pulses
Intended Learning Outcomes
The course covers the basic understanding of physical optical subjects in the context of optical systems. Parts of the lectures are given by a Dr. B. Böhme / C. Zeiss and M. Dienerowitz / Medical Faculty to include industrial and practical viewpoints.

Physics of free electron laser (Paulus)
Content
 Physical foundations of Xray lasers
 Undulators
 FEL differential equation
 Instrumentation
 Selected applications
Intended learning outcomes
The student understands the physical foundations, instrumentation, and selected applications of FELs. Acquisition of the competence to judge the applicapility and significance of FELs to address problems in Xray physics.

Plasma physics (Kaluza)
Content
 Fundamentals of plasma physics
 Single particle and fluid description of plasmas
 Waves in plasmas
 Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with plasmas
 Plasma instabilities
 Nonlinear effects (shock waves, parametric instabilities, ponderomotive effects, ...)
Intended learning outcomes
This course offers an introduction to the fundamental effects and processes relevant for the physics of ionized matter. After actively participating in this course, the students will be familiar with the fundamental physical concepts of plasma physics, especially concerning astrophysical phenomena but also with questions concerning the energy production based on nuclear fusion in magnetically or inertially confined plasmas.

Quantum computing (Eilenberger/Steinlechner/Pertsch)
Content
 Basic introduction to algorithms and computing
 The Qubit and entanglement thereof
 Basics of quantum algorithms
 Advanced quantum algorithms
 Implementation of QuBits and quantum computers
 Handson circuits
Intended learning outcomes
After active participation in the course, the students will be familiar with the basic concepts of quantum computation and the implementation of quantum algorithms. They will be able to apply their knowledge in the assessment and creation of quantum algorithms and the development of quantum information systems.
The intended learning outcome is to introduce the students to the basic usage of quantum bits for information processing. To provide further insight, the course will expand this concept on multipartite systems and introduce the concept of entanglement.
In a further step we shall see how individual quantum operations tie together to create algorithms. Important algorithms, such as the quantum Fourier transformation, the algorithms of Shor and Grover will be discussed. To relate the abstract knowledge on quantum algorithms to practical applications, realworld implementations of quantum computers will be discussed.

Quantum optics (Setzpfandt)
Content
 Basic introduction to quantum mechanics
 Quantization of the free electromagnetic field
 Nonclassical states of light and their statistics
 Experiments in quantum optics
 Semiclassical and fully quantized lightmatter interaction
 Nonlinear optics
Intended Learning Outcomes
The course will give a basic introduction into the theoretical description of quantized light and quantized lightmatter interaction. The derived formalism is then used to examine the properties of quantized light and to understand a number of peculiar quantum optical effects. After active participation in the course, the students will be familiar with the basic concepts and phenomena of quantum optics and will be able to apply the derived formalism to other problems.

Renewable energies (Paulus)
Content
 Basics of energy supply in Germany
 Potential of renewable energies
 Principles of the energy balance of planets
 Thermodynamics of the atmosphere
 Physics of wind energy systems
 Elements of solar power generation
Intended Learning Outcomes
Teaching of knowledge on the fundamentals of renewable energies. Development of skills for the independent evaluation of different types of renewable energies.

Semiconductor nanomaterials (Staude)
Content
 Review of fundamentals of semiconductors
 Optical and optoelectronic properties of semiconductors
 Effects of quantum confinement
 Photonic effects in semiconductor nanomaterials
 Physical implementations of semiconductor nanomaterials, including epitaxial structures, semiconductor quantum dots and quantum wires
 Advanced topics of current research, including 2D semiconductors and hybrid nanosystems
Intended Learning Outcomes
This course aims to convey a fundamental understanding of the physics governing the optical and optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanomaterials. First, the fundamental optical and optoelectronic properties of bulk semiconductors are reviewed, deepening and extending previously obtained knowledge in condensed matter physics. The students will then learn about the effects of quantum confinement in semiconductor systems in one, two or three spatial dimensions, as well as about photonic effects in nanostructured semiconductors. Finally, several relevant examples of semiconductor nanomaterial
systems and their applications in photonics are discussed in detail. After successful completion of the course, the students should be capable of understanding present research directions and of solving basic problems within this field of research. 
Strongfield laser physics (Paulus)
Content
 Characteristic quantities in attosecond laser physics
 Characteristic effects (abovethreshold generation, highharmonic generation, nonsequential double ionization)
 Experimental techniques
 Theoretical description of strongfield electron dynamics
 Recollision as a fundamental process in strongfield and
 Attosecond laser physics
 Generation and measurement of attosecond pulses
Intended Learning Outcomes
Knowledge of the fundamentals of highfield laser physics and attosecond laser physics based on it. Development of skills for the independent treatment of questions of these fields.

Theory of nonlinear optics (Peschel)
Content
 Types and symmetries of nonlinear polarization
 Coupling between optical fields and nonlinear matter
 Solutions of nonlinear evolution equations
 Frequency conversion in crystals with quadratic nonlinearity
Intended Learning Outcomes
The course provides the theoretical background to understand nonlinear optics.
Recommended Reading
… on nonlinear materials
 Butcher and Cotter, The Elements of Nonlinear Optics, Cambridge University Press, 1990.
 Richard Lee Sutherland, Handbook of nonlinear optics, 2003.
 Govind Agrawal, Contemporary nonlinear optics, Academic Press 1992.
…on general nonlinear optics
 Schubert and Wilhelmi, Nonlinear optics and quantum electronics, 1986.
 Jerome V. Moloney and Alan C. Newell, Nonlinear optics, 1990.
 Bahaa Saleh and Malvin C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, Wiley, 2007.

XUV and xray optics (Kartashov/Spielmann)
Content
 Complex refractive index in the XUV and Xray range
 Refractive and grazing incidence optics
 Zone plate optics
 Thomson and Compton scattering
 Xray diffraction by crystals and synthetic multilayers
 VUV and Xray optics for plasma diagnostics
 Timeresolved Xray diffraction
 EUV lithography
Intended learning outcomes
This course covers the fundamentals of modern optics at short wavelengths as they are necessary for the design of EUV and Xray optical elements. Based on this the students will learn essentials of several challenging applications of shortwavelength optics, being actual in modern science and technology.

Internship (10 credits)
Module Components
Practical course of 300 h. Depending on the topic this total workload should be distributed approximately as: 50 h introduction to the research topic (study of relevant literature, …), 190 h research work (in the lab for experimental topics and atcomputer etc. for theoretical topics), 50 h preparation of the final report, and 10 h preparation and carrying out presentation of the results
Intended Learning Outcomes
Carrying out scientific labwork in photonics together with a research team; preparation of a written scientific report; presentation and defense of the results in an oral presentation.

Active photonic devices (M. Schmidt)
Content
 Introduction
 Electrooptical modulation
 Optomechanics in photonics
 Acoustooptical devices
 Magnetooptics and optical isolation
 Integrated lasers
 NonLinear devices for light generation
 Bistability in photonics
 Spatial light modulation
Intended Learning Outcomes
The aim of this module (lecture + exercise) is to give a comprehensive overview about active photonic devices such as switches or modulators. The course starts by a crisp introduction to the most important parameters and physical principles. The lecture will then focus onto realworld devices including the areas of electrooptics, waveguides, acoustooptics, magnetooptics and nonlinear optics. During this lecture we will discuss the fundamental principles as well as devices currently employed in photonics. This lecture will provide the students a base for their master thesis.
Requirements
Basic knowledge about electrodynamics.
Recommended Reading
 J. D., Jackson Electrodynamics, Wiley.
 A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, Oxford University Press.
 Born & Wolf, Principles of Optics, Pergamon Press.

Advanced quantum optics (Saravi/Setzpfandt)
Content
The course will extend on the topics discussed in the ”Quantum Optics” lecture given in the summer semester and will explore topics that are more advanced.
The main part of the lecture (about twothird) will be devoted to treatment of lightmatter interaction in open quantum systems. Any realistic quantum system (an atom or the quantized field) will experience loss of quantum coherence through interaction with the surrounding environment (for example by losing a photon through imperfect cavity mirrors). Investigation of realistic quantum optical systems requires methods that can treat such systems, without having to keep full track of the properties of the large surrounding environment. To do this, we will learn about the densitymatrix approach and Lindblad master equation for solving the dynamics of open quantum systems in the Schrödinger picture. In the seminar, we will address the important problem of an atom in an imperfect cavity, and thoroughly investigate this system from different aspects.A smaller part of the lecture (about onethird) will be devoted to introducing the physics and the mathematical methods for phasespace treatments in quantum optics, such as introducing quasiprobability distributions (for example the Wigner function) and investigating the quasiprobability distributions of some basic states like coherent states, squeezed states, and Fock states.
Recommended Reading
Useful references for the lecture are (but not inclusive to) the following books: Quantum Optics by Scully & Zubairy, Quantum Optics by Garrison & Chiao, and Elements of Quantum Optics by Sargent & Meystre. The lecture does not exactly follow these books, but the main methods and the physics explored in the lecture can be found in these books. There are detailed handwritten lecture notes, which will be made available after every lecture.

Applied laser technology II (Eggeling/Cizmar)
Content
 Applied Laser Technology using the laser as a tool
 Microscopic and macroscopic lightmaterialsinteractions,
 Material preparation and modification (with the exception of classical laser materials' processing)
Intended Learning Outcomes
In various selected topics out of the broad field of laser applications, the students should acquire knowledge of lasermaterial interactions (e.g. atom cooling and optical tweezer), laser induced processes in gases, liquids, and matrices (incl. laser isotope separation), materials' preparation and structuring by ablation, deposition and/or modification.

Biomedical imaging  ionizing radiation (Reichenbach)
Content
Since the discovery of Xrays by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1895, imaging has become an invaluable part of science and medicine. Indeed, it is indispensable in modern (bio)medicine. Standard imaging techniques using ionizing radiation include classical Xray projection imaging and computed tomography (CT), first introduced in the 1970s, as well as imaging techniques using radioactive tracer molecules. The objective of this course is to introduce the physical principles, basic characteristics and technical concepts of these imaging systems. Recent developments and applications will be presented and serve to deepen the understanding of this area of imaging science. The course is intended for master students in medical photonics, and photonics, physics, materials science, and medical or other students with strong interest in these biomedical imaging techniques.
The following topics will be covered:
 Fundamentals of xray physics
 Medical xray technology
 Image quality
 Imaging applications
 Computed tomography (CT)
 Nuclear medical imaging
 Radiation therapy fundamentals (possibly)
Intended Learning Outcomes
To gain a critical understanding of the fundamentals and technology underlying these imaging systems, including instrumentation and various applications. In addition to lectures, the course includes other elements, such as short online quizzes, homework assignments, and programming assignments to solve problems by implementing algorithms in Matlab or Python, which are related to the methods described in the course. This course is independent of Biomedical Imaging  nonionizing radiation and does not require prior attendance of that course.
Recommended Reading
 A. Oppelt, Imaging Systems for Medical Diagnostics: Fundamentals, Technical Solutions and Applications for Systems Applying Ionizing Radiation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasound, Publicis.
 P. Suetens, Fundamentals of Medical Imaging, Cambridge University Press.
 W.R. Hendee, E.R. Ritenour, Medical Imaging Physics, WileyLiss.
 J.T. Bushberg, J.A. Seiberg, E.M. Leidholdt, Jr., J.M. Boone Essential Physics of Medical Imaging, Wolters Kluwer Health.

Computational imaging (Lötgering/Heintzmann)
Content
 Review: Linear Algebra, Calculus, Python
 Optimization part 1: Continuous (Euler Lagrange) and Discrete (multivariate calculus)
 Programming lab: genetic algorithms + Fermat principle
 Optimization part 2: nonlinear optimization, regularization, Lagrange multipliers
 Optimization part 3: Convex techniques, l1 minimization
 Programming lab: single pixel camera
 Optimization part 4: Automatic differentiation
 Matrix representation of coherent optical systems
 Programming lab: keras toolbox, optical eigenmodes
 Multiple scattering: Born / Rytov series, beam propagation method
 Tomographic inversion
 Programming lab: FoldyLax scattering theory
 Phase retrieval part 1: coherent diffraction imaging (CDI)
 Phase retrieval part 2: ptychography
 Programming lab: hybrid input output, shrink wrap, ptychography
 Phase retrieval part 3: Fourier ptychography
 Image deconvolution: structured illumination microscopy, pupil engineering
 Programming lab: extended depthoffield systems
 Imaging with spatially partially coherent light
 Parameter estimation: Fisher information and Cramer Rao lower bound
 Programming lab: Coded aperture imaging, resolution assessment, edge responses, modulation transfer function, Fourier ring correlation
 Neural networks part 1: Image classification
 Neural networks part 2: Image regression
 Programming lab: digit recognition, counting red blood cells
Recommended Reading
 G. J. Gbur, Mathematical methods for optical physics and engineering, Cambridge University Press.
 S. Brunton and J. N. Kutz, Datadriven science and engineering: Machine learning, dynamical systems, and control, Cambridge University Press.
 G. Strang, Linear algebra and learning from data, Cambridge: WellesleyCambridge Press.

Experimental nonlinear optics (Paulus)
Content
 Propagation of light in crystals
 Properties of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor
 Description of light propagation in nonlinear media
 Parametric effects
 Second harmonic generation
 Phasematching
 Propagation of ultrashort pulses
 Highharmonic generation
 Solitons
Intended Learning Outcomes
This course gives an introduction to optics in nonlinear media and discusses the main nonlinear effects.

Experimental quantum technology (Setzpfandt)
Content
The course will introduce quantum optics and related quantum technology in a phenomenological way, centered on particular experiments that show specific features or applications of nonclassical light and other quantum systems. It will contain handson experiences, where the students themselves perform quantumoptical experiments or program quantum algorithms, as well as classroom instruction. The course will cover:
 properties, generation, and detection of nonclassical light
 experimental techniques in quantum optics
 applications of quantum optics
 handson training in quantum optics experiments
 handson training in quantum computing
Intended Learning Outcomes
The course will give a basic introduction into the properties and applications of quantum light from a practical perspective. Thus, it complements the course “Quantum Optics,” which introduces quantum optics in a more rigorous and fundamental way. This course will enable the participating students to understand and perform quantum optics experiments. Furthermore, the programming of quantum computers to execute certain algorithms will be taught. Thus, the course prepares for further own work in the area of quantum optics and quantum technology.
Recommended Reading
 M. Fox, “Quantum Optics – An introduction”, Oxford University Press.
 H.A. Bachor, T. C. Ralph “A guide to experiments in quantum optics”, John Wiley & Sons.
 IBM "The QISKIT Book".

Graphene: electronic and optical properties (Soavi)
Content
 Introduction to graphene
 Band structure and Dirac Hamiltonian
 Dirac fermions
 Optical properties of graphene: Raman and and absorption
Intended Learning Outcomes
Understanding the relativistic character of electrons in graphene and its impact on the electrical and optical properties. Ability to read, understand and present in a clear way the most recent trends and published results in the field of graphene (hydrodynamic regime of electrons, unconventional superconductivity in twsited bilayer graphene etc.)

Highintensity and relativistic optics (Kaluza)
Content
 Highintensity laser technology
 Laser plasma physics
 Laser accelerated particles and applications
Intended Learning Outcomes
The interaction of high intensity light fields with matter is the subject of this course. The students should learn the basic ideas of high intensity laser technology and its applications.
Recommended Reading
 W. L. Kruer, The Physics of Laser Plasma Interactions, Westview press.
 P. Gibbon, Short Pulse Laser Interactions with Matter, Imperial College Press.
 F. F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Springer.
 Hiroyuki Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications, Wiley.
 Mark Fox, Optical Properties of Solids, Oxford University Press.

Image processing in microscopy (Heintzmann)
Content
We will show different methodologies to extract specific information such as for example the average speed of diffusing particles or the locations and areas of cells from the multidimensional image data. Also fitting quantitative models to extracted data will be treated. Simulation of farfield intensity distribution by using simple Fourierspace based approaches is treated with and without considering the vectorial nature of the oscillating electromagnetic field.
Intended Learning Outcomes
Current microscopy often acquires a large amount of image data from which the biological or clinical researcher often needs to answer very specific questions.A major topic is the reconstruction of the sample from the acquired, often complex, microscopy data. To solve such inverse problems, a good model of the data acquisition process is required, ranging from assumptions about the sample (e.g. a positive concentration of molecules per voxel), assumptions about the imaging process (e.g. the existence of an incoherent spatially invariant point spread function) to modeling the noise characteristics of the detection process (e.g. read noise and photon noise).

Introduction to modern xray science (Röhlsberger)
Content
The lecture gives an introduction into the foundations of the interactions of xrays with matter. Special emphasis will be given on the role of modern xray sources like synchrotrons and xray lasers. Several fascinating applications of xrays in the natural sciences will be presentend, ranging from materials science and structural biology to the new field of quantum and nonlinear optics with xrays.
 Generation of xrays: Xray tubes, synchrotrons and xray lasers(3) Xray optics: Refraction and Reflection of Xrays(5) Dynamical Scattering Theory(7) Anomalous scattering and xray spectroscopy(9) Xray studies of thin films and magnetic nanostructures
 Quantum and nonlinear optics with Xrays
 Imaging with coherent Xrays
 Smallangle xray scattering
 Kinematical Scattering Theory
 Interaction of Xrays with matter: Basic mechanisms
Recommended Reading
Jens AlsNielsel & Des McMorrow, Elements of Modern Xray Physics, Wiley.

Laser driven radiation sources (Zepf)
Content
 Laser Plasma Interactions
 Principles of Plasma Accelerators
 Ultrafast Photon Sources
 Scattering of photons from particle beams
Recommended Reading
The course introduces the basic interaction processes of highenergy lasers with plasmas and particle beams with a particular emphasis on the extremely intense sources of proton, electron and photons with pulse durations in the femtosecond regime.

Laser engineering (Kaluza)
Content
 Origin and dependencies of absorption and emission cross sections
 Ytterbium based laser media
 Design of laser diode pump engines,
 Special topics in geometrical optics for amplifier design
 Basic calculations for layout of diode pumped high energy amplifiers
 Ytterbium based laser materials and cryogenic cooling
 Limitations and special topics (laser induced damage threshold [LIDT], amplified spontaneous emission [ASE]… )
Intended Learning Outcomes
This is an application oriented course focusing on topics needed for development and design of diode pumped high energy class laser systems. Besides general topics the main part of this lecture is dedicated to ytterbium based laser systems. Besides basic knowledge like the spectral properties of laser materials and their significance for a laser system, further key topics like laser induced damage thresholds, laser diode pump engines, modeling of amplification and amplified spontaneous emission will be discussed.
Recommended Reading
 W. Koechner, Solidstate laser engineering, Springer.
 F. Träger, Springer handbook of lasers and optics, Springer Science & Business Media.
 R. M. Wood, Laserinduced damage of optical materials, CRC Press.

Lens Design II (Tang/Zhang from ZEISS)
Content
 Paraxial imaging and basic properties of optical systems
 Initial systems and structural modifications
 Chromatical correction
 Aspheres and freeform surfaces
 Optimization strategy and constraints
 Special correction features and methods
 Tolerancing and adjustment
Intended learning outcomes
This course covers the advanced principles of the development of optical systems.

Light microscopy (Heintzmann)
Content
Starting from geometrical optics the imaging system will be described and optical aberrations will be discussed. Moving on to wave optics monochromatic waves will be taken as the basis for the description of coherent imaging. Combined with scattering theory in the 1st Born approximation a fundamental understanding of the possibilities and limitations in imaging is gained. The concept of the amplitude transfer function and McCutchens 3dimensional pupil function are introduced. On this basis various coherent imaging modes are discussed including holographic approaches and their limitations, and optical coherent tomography. The working principles of lightdetectors are discussed and the requirements for appropriate sampling of images. Finally various modes of fluorescence microscopy and highresolution microscopy will be covered. The exercises will be calculating examples, also involving handson computer based modeling using Matlab and other tools.
Intended Learning Outcomes
Understanding of the working principles of modern light microscopes and microscopic methods ranging from standard methods to modern superresolution techniques.

Optical properties of solids in external fields (H. Schmidt)

Physical optics (Franke)
Content
 Wave optics, light propagation
 Diffraction, slit, PSF, aberrations
 Coherence, temporal and spatial, OCT, speckle
 Laser, resonators, laser beams, pulses
 Gaussian beams, propagation, generalizations, Schell beams
 Fourier optics, resolution, image formation, OTF, criteria
 Quality criteria of imaging
 PSF engineering, superresolution, extended depth of focus
 Confocal methods, laser scanning, metrology
 Polarization, fundamentals, Jones vectors, birefringence
 Photon optics, uncertainty, statistics
 Scattering, surfaces, volume models, tissue optics
 Miscellaneous, coatings, nonlinear optics, short pulses
Intended Learning Outcomes
The course covers the basic understanding of physical optical subjects in the context of optical systems.
Recommended Reading
 B. Saleh & M. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, Wiley.
 W. Singer, M. Totzeck, and H. Gross, Handbook of optical systems, Wiley.
 J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, Wiley.
 A. Lipson & S. Lipson, Optical Physics, Cambridge.
 G. Reynolds & J. deVlies, The Physical Optics Notebook, SPIE Press.
 J. Goodman, Statistical Optics, Wiley.
 E. Hecht, Optics, deGruyter.
 C. Brosseau, Polarized Light, Wiley.
 J. Stover, Optical Scattering, McGrawHill.
 M. NietoVesperinas, Scattering and Diffraction in Physical Optics, World Scientific.
 A. Siegman, Lasers, Oxford University.
 F. Trager, Handbook of Lasers and Optics, Springer.

Physics of ultrafast optical discharge and filamentation (Spielmann/Kartashov)
Content
 Physics of Photoionization
 Optical breakdown
 Basics plasma kinetics
 LIBS Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy
 Physics of filamentation
 Applications: LIDAR, lightning discharge, supercontinuum generation
Intended learning outcomes
In a selected number of topics out of the broad field of high power laser matter interactions the students should acquire knowledge of ionization, plasma kinetics, filamentation and applications in spectroscopy metrology and atmospheric science.

Quantum communication (Steinlechner/Eilenberger/Tünnermann)
Content
 Basic introduction to quantum optics
 Quantum light sources
 Encoding, transmission and detection of information with quantum light
 Quantum communication and cryptography
 Quantum communication networks
 Outlook on Quantum metrology and Quantum imaging
Intended Learning Outcomes
The course will give a basic introduction into the usage of quantum states of light for the exchange of information. It will introduce contemporary methods for the generation of quantum light and schemes that leverage these states for the exchange of information, ranging from fundamental concepts and experiments to state of the art implementations for secure communication networks. The course will also give an outlook to aspects of Quantum metrology and imaging.
After active participation in the course, the students will be familiar with the basic concepts and phenomena of quantum information exchange and some aspects related to the practical implementation thereof. They will be able to apply their knowledge in the assessment and setup of experiments and devices for applications of quantum information processing.
Requirements
Quantum theory
Recommended Reading
 Grynberg, Aspect, and Fabre, Introduction to Quantum Optics, Cambridge University Press.
 Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, Academic Press.
 Kok & Lovett, Introduction to Optical Quantum Information Processing, Cambridge University Press.
 Leuchs, Lectures on Quantum Information, WileyVCH.
 Sergienko, Quantum Communications and Cryptograhy, CRC Press.
 Ou & Jeff, MultiPhoton Quantum Interference, Springer.

Quantum imaging and sensing (Setzpfandt)
Content
 Basic introduction to relevant concepts of quantum optics
 The generation of photon pairs
 Fundamentals of twophoton interference
 Applications of twophoton interference
 Optical quantum metrology
 Ghost Imaging
 Quantum microscopy
Intended Learning Outcomes
The course will give a basic introduction into the usage of quantum light, in particular photon pairs, for imaging and sensing. To this end, many basic concepts and applications will be introduced and discussed. Furthermore, students will learn how to mathematically describe quantum sensing schemes in order to understand and predict their properties. After active participation in the course, the students will be familiar with the basic concepts and phenomena of quantum imaging and sensing and will be able to apply the derived formalism to similar problems.
Recommended Reading
 D. Simon, G. Jaeger, A. Sergienko, Quantum Metrology, Imaging, and Communication, Springer.
 M. Kolobov, Quantum Imaging, Springer.
 C. Gerry, P. Knight, Introductory Quantum Optics, Cambridge University Press.
 G. Grynberg, A. Aspect, C. Fabre, Introduction to Quantum Optics, Cambridge University Press.

Quantum Information Theory (Gärttner/Sondenheimer)
Content
 Basic introduction to quantum optics
 Quantum light sources
 Encoding
 Transmission and detection of information with quantum light
 Quantum communication and cryptography
 Quantum communication networks
 Outlook on Quantum metrology and Quantum imaging
Contributed lectures by Dr. Sondenheimer
 Open quantum systems, Density matrix formalism, Generalized measurements, Quantum channels
 Superdense coding, quantum teleportation
 Entanglement theory
 Bell inequalities, CHSH inequalities
 Quantum circuits, universal gates
 Quantum error correction

Thin film optics (Tünnermann/Stenzel)
Content
 Basic dispersion models in thin film optics
 Optical properties of material mixtures
 Interfaces: Fresnels equations
 Multiple internal reflections in layered systems
 Optical spectra of single thin films
 Wave propagation in stratified media
 Matrix formalism
 Multilayer systems: Quarterwavestacks and derived systems
 Coatings for the extreme ultraviolet spectral range (excursion to the OptixFab GmbH company planned)
 Remarks on coating design
Intended Learning Outcomes
This course is of use for anyone who needs to learn how optical thin films and coatings are used to tailor the optical properties of surfaces. After an introduction about the theoretical fundamentals of optical coatings the student should learn how to calculate the optical properties of uncoated and coated surfaces for use in characterization and design tasks. Based on this, typical design concepts and applications will be presented.
Requirements
Basic knowledge on complex calculus, matrix calculus, differential equations as well as on optics (including solid state optics) is presumed.
Recommended Reading
 Born & Wolf, Introduction to optics, Pergamon Press.
 H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, Adam Hilger Ltd.
 O. Stenzel, The Physics of Thin Film Optical Spectra. An Introduction, Springer Series in Surface Sciences.

Ultrafast optics (Nolte/Alberucci)
Content
 Introduction to ultrafast optics
 Fundamentals
 Ultrashort pulse generation
 Amplification of ultrashort pulses
 Measurement of ultrashort pulses
 Applications
 Generation of attosecond pulses
Intended Learning Outcomes
The aim of this course is to provide a detailed understanding of ultrashort laser pulses, their mathematical description as well as their application. The students will learn how to generate, characterize and use ultrashort laser pulses. Special topics will be covered during the seminars.
Recommended Reading
 Weiner, Ultrafast Optics, Wiley.
 Diels/Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, Elsevier Science
 Rulliere, Femtosecond laser pulses, Springer.
 W. Koechner, Solidstate Laser engineering, Springer.
 A. Siegman, Lasers, University Science Books.

Research lab (18 credits)
Module Components
Practical course with a total workload of 540 h. Depending on the topic this total workload should be distributed approximately as: 150 h introduction to the research topic (study of relevant literature, …), 270 h research work (in the lab for experimental topics and at computer etc. for theoretical topics), 100 h preparation of the final report, and 20 h preparation and carrying out presentation of the results.
Intended learning outcomes
Carrying out scientific labwork in optics together with a research team; preparation of a scientific report; presentation of the results in a written report.
Requirements for awarding credits
 Written report (approximately 2030 pages)
 Final presentation (1525 minutes) with subsequent discussion

Master's degree thesis (30 credits)
Content
Total workload of 900 h. Depending on the topic this total workload should be distributed approximately as: 225 h introduction to the research topic (study of relevant literature, …), 450 h research work (in the lab for experimental topics and at computer etc. for theoretical topics), 200 h preparation of the final report, and 25 h preparation and carrying out presentation of the results. Internship in a research laboratory.
Intended Learning Outcomes
Carrying out advanced scientific labwork in optics together with a research team; preparation of the work flow and analysis of the results; preparation of a scientific report; presentation of the results in a Master’s Thesis and presentation.
Requirements for awarding credits
The mark consists of a written report – Master's Thesis (66%)  and a presentation (33%).
Additional information
 The Master's Thesis should contain approximately 4060 pages.
 The results of the Master’s Thesis are presented by the candidate in a 2030 minute talk, and then discussed.
 The final grade is determined according to the Rules of Examination (in German: ”Prüfungsordnung”).